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Saturday 15 Jun 2019

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San Gimignano En

Written by Enrico Lanfossi. TPL_WARP_POSTED_IN Bed and Breakfast Gli Olivi

For the characteristic medieval architecture of its historic center was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The site of San Gimignano, despite some reversals nineteenth and twentieth century , it is mostly intact in two-fourteenth century and is one of the best examples in Europe of urban organization of the municipality.
territory

The municipality of San Gimignano extends for 138 square kilometers and is situated on a high hill in the Val d' Elsa. The altitude difference is between a minimum of 64 meters above sea level in the plain of the river Elsa at Certaldo to a maximum of 631 meters in the area of ​​Cornocchio , the capital is set at 324 m above sea level
climate

    
Seismic Classification : Zone 2 ( medium-high seismicity ) , PCM Ordinance 3274 of 20/03/2003
    
Climate classification : Zone D, 2085 GR / G
    
Atmospheric diffusion : high Ibimet CNR 2002

history
the origins

San Gimignano was built on a site inhabited by the Etruscans certainly , at least from the third century BC , as evidenced by numerous archaeological finds (especially tombs) in the surrounding area. The hill was definitely chosen for strategic issues , being dominant (324 m) over the upper Val d'Elsa .

On the slopes of Poggio del Comune ( 624 m asl) are the ruins of Castelvecchio , a village of Lombard period .

The first mention dates back to 929 .

In the Middle Ages the town was on a pillar of Via Francigena, which Sigerico , Archbishop of Canterbury, traveled between 990 and 994 and which for him represented the nineteenth stage ( Mansi ) of its return route from Rome to England . Sigerico the appointed Sce Gemiane , signaling the village as a point of intersection with the road between Pisa and Siena.

According to tradition the name comes from the Holy Bishop of Modena, who would defend the village from the occupation of Attila .

The first city walls dating back to 998 and included the hill of Montestaffoli , where there was already a fortress home market owned by the Bishop of Volterra, and the slope of the Tower with the bishop's castle .
the thirteenth century

 

Taddeo di Bartolo , San Gimignano from Modena who holds the city of San Gimignano, City Museum ( San Gimignano)

About 1150 , despite the opening of a new route of the Via Francigena , San Gimignano continued to be an emerging center , with a policy of territorial expansion and significant growth of the business. It was during this period that he formed two " villages " outside the walls: that of St. Matthew, to Pisa , and that of St. John , to Siena , both along a new "high road" , which were incorporated into the walls with the new route completed in 1214.

In 1199 , at the height of its splendor Economically, the country gained its independence from the municipal to the bishops of Volterra. There were some internal struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines ( respectively headed by the irreducible Ardinghelli and Salvucci ), but from the thirteenth century, under the Ghibellines , dates from the period of greatest economic splendor , which was based on trade in precious local agricultural products, including the most sought was saffron , sold in Italy (Pisa , Lucca , Genoa) and abroad (France and the Netherlands , even up to Syria and Egypt ) . Moreover, like other Tuscan towns , spread financial speculation and usury. The strong economy allowed the creation of an urban aristocracy , who expressed his political and social supremacy in the construction of the towers in the fourteenth century it grew to 72 towers ( today there are perhaps 14).

The huge accumulated capital was invested during the thirteenth century in important public works , which gave the town the articulation of urban spaces still visible today .

In 1251 the walls inglobarono Montestaffoli , but a few years later, in 1255 , the city was taken by the Guelphs of Florence who ordered the destruction of the walls . Having regained independence in 1261 and returned to the Ghibelline supremacy after the battle, the rebuilt the walls of San Gimignano including also the slope of the Tower . Since the conformation of the town was divided into four districts , each corresponding to a main door : that of Piazza di Castello, of St. Matthew and St. John .



The religious orders , supported by the municipality, settled in the city since the mid- thirteenth century : the Franciscans outside San Giovanni ( 1247 ) , the Augustinians at the door St. Matthew (1280 ) , the Dominicans in Montestaffoli ( 1335 ) and the Benedictine St. Jerome at the Porta San Jacopo ( 1337 ) .

From 8 May 1300 the City had the honor of hosting Dante Alighieri as an ambassador of the Guelph League in Tu

 

scany.
The decline of the Medici era and contemporary

The fourteenth century was a century of crisis that did not spare San Gimignano : troubled by internal struggles , it was heavily affected by the black plague and famine of 1348 , which decimated the population . In 1351 the city exhausted voluntarily handed himself in Florence, gave up its autonomy and a political role in the arena of Tuscany. From that year the fortress of Montestaffoli , while in 1358 the walls were reinforced .

Despite the economic and political decline , the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were important from the point of view of art , thanks to the presence in the city of many masters , Siena or Florence more often , especially by the religious orders called to embellish their possessions . They worked in San Gimignano Memmo di Filippuccio , Lippo Memmi and Federico , Taddeo di Bartolo , Benozzo Gozzoli , Domenico Ghirlandaio , Sebastiano Mainardi (native of San Gimignano) , Piero del Pollaiuolo, etc. .

The decline and marginalization of the city in the following centuries were the conditions that allowed the extraordinary crystallization of its medieval appearance.

At the plebiscite in 1860 for the annexation of Tuscany to Sardinia the "yes" received not , however briefly , the majority of claimants ( 1122 out of total of 2275 ) , a sign of opposition to the annexation .

At the end of the nineteenth century they began to rediscover the uniqueness and beauty of the town, which was submitted in full to the monumental constraint in 1929. In 1990 it was declared a UNESCO world heritage site.

During World War II , the country was bombed by the Americans for ten days , the Torre Grossa was destroyed the bell ( a new one was given after the war by the people of the Soviet Union ), a house collapsed in the square and a piece of the cathedral ; the bombing began on Thursday , market day , and this caused some dead a young mother was shot in the foot by a splinter , and had his leg amputated. After ten days spent in shelters that San Gimignano , the priest was able to convince the Americans that in the village there were no more than ten Germans, and that they could storm the city without risk.
Monuments and places of interest
Towers of San Gimignano
the towers
Flag of UNESCO.svg Well protected by UNESCO Flag of UNESCO.svg
UNESCO World Heritage Site World Heritage logo.svg
Historic Centre of San Gimignano
(EN) Historic Centre of San Gimignano
[ [File : Sangimignano0001.jpg
Towers of San Gimignano seen from Via San Giovanni
| 280x280px ]]
Type Architectural
Criterion C ( i) ( iii ) ( iv )
No indication of danger
Recognized since 1990
UNESCO Card (EN ) More
(FR ) More

San Gimignano is especially famous for its medieval towers that still stand out on its landscape, which have earned him the nickname of Manhattan of the Middle Ages. Between the 72 towers and tower-houses, existing in the heyday of the City , it five in 1580 and today there are sixteen , with other scapitozzate intravedibili in the urban fabric . The oldest is the Rognosa tower , which is 51 meters high , while the highest is the Torre del Podesta, also known as Torre Grossa, of 54 meters. A regulation of 1255 forbade private citizens to build the tallest towers of the tower Rognosa (which at the time was the highest) , although the two most important families , and Ardinghelli Salvucci , they built two towers little lower than almost equal size , to demonstrate their power .

    
Bell tower of the Collegiate
    
Towers of Ardinghelli
    
Torre dei Becci
    
tower Campatelli
    
Torre Chigi
    
Tower of Cugnanesi
    
Devil's Tower
    
Tower Ficherelli or Ficarelli
    
Torre Grossa
    
Tower of Palazzo Pellari
    
Tower-house Minnows
    
tower Combs
    
tower Rognosa
    
Torri dei Salvucci

In some texts, the number of towers is reduced from 16 to 14 : Counting in general are removed from the bell tower of the Collegiate Church and the Casa -Torre fishes that have different characteristics from the others.
religious Architecture
Piazza della Cisterna view from Torre Grossa

    
Collegiate Church : also commonly known as the Cathedral, completed in 1148, is considered one of the finest examples of Tuscan Romanesque . Built on three aisles , the walls are frescoed . Among the valuable works in fresco : San Sebastian by Benozzo Gozzoli and the Story of Santa Fina by Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Chapel of Santa Fina , among those of the Sienese school : Old and New Testament by Bartolo di Fredi and the workshop of Memmi and Judgement Taddeo di Bartolo . Notable sculptures by Giuliano and Benedetto da Majano el ' wooden Annunciation by Jacopo della Quercia.
    
St. Augustine Church : This church also contains many frescoes , including the Chapel of St. Bartolo di Benedetto da Majano , the stories of the life of Saint Augustine by Benozzo Gozzoli , and other remains of frescoes , tables and paintings by different authors ( Benozzo Gozzoli , Piero del Pollaiuolo, Pier Francesco Fiorentino , Vincenzo Tamagni , Sebastiano Mainardi ) .
    
Church of Santa Maria
    
Shrine of Mary, Mother of Divine Providence
    
Church of the Quercecchio and former Oratory of St. Francis, houses the Museum ornithological
    
Church of the Conservatory of Santa Chiara
    
Church of Our Lady of Enlightenment
    
Church of San Bartolo
    
Church of St. Francis
    
Church of St. James in the Temple
    
Church of San Lorenzo Bridge
    
Church of St. Peter
    
Church of St. Jerome
    
Convent of Monte Oliveto
    
Loggia of the Baptistery ( Oratorio di San Giovanni)
    
Hospital of Santa Fina
    
Abbey of the Holy Sepulchre and St. Mary in Helmets

civil architectures

    
house Salvestrini
    
Medieval sources : journey on the road outside the Porta delle Fonti , access the second walls of San Gimignano. Their construction dates from the fourteenth century , when they were asked to cover a source in Lombard stone of the ninth century . in ancient times these were the public sources in the area, where they drew water , and they washed their clothes .
    
Loggia del Comune
    
Municipal Palace or Palazzo del Podesta again : once housed the mayor , currently houses the civic museum and art gallery containing masterpieces by artists such as Pinturicchio , Benozzo Gozzoli , Filippino Lippi , Domenico di Michelino , Pier Francesco Fiorentino , etc. . Moreover, also in the Town Hall , you can visit the hall of Dante with the Majesty of Lippo Memmi and access the Torre Grossa, 54 m high dating back to 1311.
    
The old palace of the Podesta formerly used for civil functions before the construction of the new building , was later turned into a prison and then ( in the sixteenth century ) in the theater.
    
Palace Baccinelli
    
Palace Cortesi
    
Palace Ficarelli
    
Palace Franzesi Ceccarelli
    
Palace Lucii
    
Palace Mangani
    
Pratellesi Palace : one of the most interesting palaces of the city, dates back to the fourteenth century and has a fine sixteenth-century fresco by Vincenzo Tamagni .
    
Palazzo Razzi
    
Building Talei Franzesi
    
Palace Tamburini
    
Palace Tinacci
    
Palazzo Tortoli Tortoli - or Treccani
    
Palace Useppi
    
Palace Vichi
    
Pharmacy of Santa Fina , using material from the Pharmacy of the Hospital of Santa Fina , which reproduces the old pharmacy , with ceramic and glass containers and medicines .

military architecture

    
Walls of San Gimignano
    
Porta San Giovanni
    
Porta San Matteo
    
Porta San Jacopo
    
Porta delle Fonti
    
Bastion St. Francis
    
Rocca di Montestaffoli

natural Areas

    
Castelvecchio Nature Reserve

archaeological Areas

    
Necropolis Cellole